install trac 1.1.2-dev on ubuntu 12.04

I tried to make a good tutorial to figure out, how to install trac 1.1.2-dev on ubuntu 12.04. This was mainly done as a walkthrough for me, and I hope that you ‘ll find nice too.

I asume that you have a fresh install of ubuntu 12.04, so you firstly have to do:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade.

Out of our scope I am just saying that, I allways want to take the role of root, even on an ubuntu linux system so the first thing I do is:

sudo passwd root

after setting a password for a root user, you are able to do:


and then you are logged in a root session.

One more thing that helps me a lot is to set bash_autocompletion for root user. This is tricky and easy in Ubuntu. You have to edit the the .bashrc file in your home directory. For the root user is:


so lets do it:

vi /root/.bashrc

and then just comment out the 3 last lines in this file and more accurately these 3 lines:

if [ -f /etc/bash_completion ] && ! shopt -oq posix; then
 . /etc/bash_completion

now we are ready to proceed to the installation guide.

install trac 1.1.2-dev on ubuntu 12.04

lets apt-get install all packages needed:

apt-get -y install python-setuptools python-genshi python-genshi-doc mysql-client-5.5 mysql-server-5.5 python-mysqldb python-babel python-docutils enscript subversion git apache2 libapache2-mod-python mercurial python-dev python-pygments

I hope that I haven’t forget a package 😛

Database preparation

At the time of installing mysql-server-5.5 you will be asked to set a root password for the database server. Choose one to enter. After the successful installation of mysql server and all the other package, lets prepare our database server for the trac installation.

use the mysql client you just installed:

mysql -u root -p

enter the root password you have chosen

In this section I have to say that for each trac project you will need a database, so lets the database a relative name. I named mine trac_myproject. So enter on mysql console the following commands:

CREATE DATABASE trac_myproject DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_bin;
GRANT ALL ON trac_myproject.* TO tracuser@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'tracpass';
flush privileges;

tracuser and tracpass in the above example are just example names.

Now write down the db connection string, that you will need when you will create your first trac project.


As an advice I ‘ll say that you shouldn’t use the char @ as member of the password beacuse trac will fail to make the connection to the database.

Once we are ready with the database lets get our hands dirty with trac!

Trac latest dev and TracMercurial plugin installation

we have to get the sources for the trac and TracMercurial:

I got the clones of these repositories to my root directory:

cd /root

clone repositories

svn co
hg clone

install trac

get into the directory trunk

cd trunk
python install

install TracMercurial

get into mercurial-plugin directory

cd ../mercurial-plugin
python bdist_egg

After this procedure a python egg file has been created for the plugin, which we will copy into our project’s folder later. After this procedure we can use trac commands to create environment to create projects and more.

Create our trac environment directory

We can now create our trac environment diractory. You can initialize anywhere you want. My opinion is to create a directory under /usr/share/ directory named trac. Under this directory you can deploy your trac projects. Keep in mind that this directory will be exposed to web access.

mkdir /usr/share/trac
trac-admin /usr/share/trac/myproject initenv

now you will  be asked for a name of the project and the db connection string for this project ( mysql://tracuser:tracpass@localhost:3306/trac_myproject )

chown -R www-data:www-data /usr/share/trac/myproject

with the trac-admin command we created and initialized a project environemnet. Now you can create and initialize as much projects as you want under /usr/share/trac directory

We changed the group and owner of the project directory to apache user (www-data) to the project because we will now setup apache with mod_python module to serve the trac projects.

Apache Configuration

Usually main apache configuration file is /etc/apache2/apache2.conf, and we will edit it a litle to use python module for apache.

vi /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

Add the following lines at the end of the file:

<Location "/trac">
SetHandler mod_python
PythonInterpreter main_interpreter
PythonHandler trac.web.modpython_frontend
PythonOption TracEnvParentDir /usr/share/trac
PythonOption TracUriRoot /trac

You should now check if module mod_python is enabled. Check if a file python.load exists under /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/ directory. If it does not exist create it your self:

vi /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/python.load

and add this line to the file:

LoadModule python_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/


Basic Authentication

If you want basic authentication via apache then add to the /etc/apache2/apache2.conf file the following lines:

vi /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

add the following

<LocationMatch "/trac/[^/]+/login">
 AuthType Basic
 AuthName "Trac"
 AuthUserFile /etc/trac/trac.htpasswd
 Require valid-user

save and exit

mkdir /etc/trac
htpasswd -c /etc/trac/trac.htpasswd admin

enter a password for the admin user

Now restart apache:

service apache2 restart

You can now visit the http://your-ip/trac/ or if you want to visit it locally

I installed trac to a remote server so I visit my projects by using it’s ip. Keep in mind that you should check for firewall settings to allow access to port 80.

Configure the project to use TracMercurial

now we should copy the python egg file we created when installing the TracMercurial plugin into project’s plugin directory.

cp /root/mercurial-plugin/dist/TracMercurial- /usr/share/trac/myproject/plugins/.

the name of the egg may vary depending of the dev version.

now lets make a profile for the mercurial, because it will be needed at next steps.

vi /root/.hgrc

and add the following lines by your needs.

username = Administrator <admin@trac>

Ofcourse this is a test environment, and we will create the repository inside the trac project directory. In an mercurial server environment you can include the actual repository directories.

mkdir -p /usr/share/trac/myproject/hg/
cd /usr/share/trac/myproject/hg/

now lets init a hg project

hg init (project-directory)
cd (project-directory)
(add some files)
hg add
hg commit -m 'Initial commit'

Our last configuration step is to configure project see the repository

vi /usr/share/trac/myproject/conf/trac.ini

check if these lines exist and if not, add them

node_format = short
show_rev = yes
tracext.hg.* = enabled

then under [trac] tag edit the corresponding to match:

repository_dir = /usr/share/trac/myproject/hg/(project-directory)
repository_type = hg

now you should do one more time:

chown -R www-data:www-data /usr/share/trac/myproject
service apache2 restart

I hope that all work fine!!!


enable apt-get autocomplete

This how to, tutorial enable apt-get autocomplete, is the same for all debian based distributions like ubuntu, linux mint, debian, kubuntu, backtrack linux and more…

Debian Administration

I was wondering how to enable auto complete of packages for apt-get command in Backtrack linux. I recalled a day when I firstly installed Ubuntu on my laptop, and I was searching for a way to manipulate packages. I was not able to know every package nor versioning. Thus, searching on the Internet I finally found the bash_completion. This is a utility with very powerful abilities for users and programmers. In order to understand better what bash_completion is, I advice you to take a look at debian’s article about bash_completion utility .


Now lets tell how to enable this feature if not already enabled.  There are two ways both includes shell commands and the changes last for the terminal session you use.


source /etc/bash_completion


. /etc/bash_completion

From now on you are able to use Tab key to autocomplete / suggest commands like:

apt-get ins [TAB]
apt-get install dove[TAB]
apt-get install dovecot[TAB]
dovecot dovecot-gssapi dovecot-pgsql
dovecot-antispam dovecot-imapd dovecot-pop3d
dovecot-common dovecot-ldap dovecot-postfix
dovecot-core dovecot-lmtpd dovecot-sieve
dovecot-dbg dovecot-managesieved dovecot-solr
dovecot-dev dovecot-mysql dovecot-sqlite
apt-get install dovecot dovecot-antispam dovecot-ldap

If you want to permanently enable this utility you have to edit your



vi /etc/bashrc

You have to find the following lines in this file:

# enable bash completion in interactive shells
#if [ -f /etc/bash_completion ] && ! shopt -oq posix; then
#. /etc/bash_completion


and uncomment (deleting the #) the following lines

if [ -f /etc/bash_completion ] && ! shopt -oq posix; then
. /etc/bash_completion

This how to, tutorial enable apt-get autocomplete, is the same for all debian based distributions like ubuntu, linux mint, debian, kubuntu, backtrack linux and more…


Installing CUDA on Ubuntu 12.04

If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to get started with GPGPU computing, you really can’t go wrong with nVidia’s CUDA. It is a parallel computing architecture that harnesses the power of GPUs in order to achieve significant speedups in problems that would have otherwise taken a significantlylonger time while executing on the CPU. It is the most mature architecture for GPGPU computing, with a wide number of libraries based around it. This guide is going to cover the installation of the CUDA toolkit and SDK on Ubuntu, along with the necessary development drivers.

NOTE – For CUDA to work, you must have an nVidia GPU which is CUDA capable. If you have an ATI GPU, this guide is not for you. You can, however, look into OpenCL.

If your GPU meets the requirements, head over to the CUDA Downloads page and download the toolkit, drivers and SDK from under the Linux section, taking care to choose the 32 or 64-bit version depending on your system. If you’re not sure, run
uname -m
in a terminal. i686 denotes a 32-bit system, and x86_64 denotes a 64-bit one. For the toolkit, I chose the one titled Ubuntu 11.04, although either of the Ubuntu toolkits should work just fine.

Save all three files in an easy to access location, like your Home folder. Do not proceed with this guide until you’ve either memorized the following steps or printed them for easy reference!

STEP I – Driver installation

Make sure the requisite tools are installed using the following command –

sudo apt-get install freeglut3-dev build-essential libx11-dev libxmu-dev libxi-dev libgl1-mesa-glx libglu1-mesa libglu1-mesa-dev

Next, blacklist the required modules (so that they don’t interfere with the driver installation) –

gksu gedit /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf

Add the following lines to the end of the file, one per line –

blacklist amd76x_edac
blacklist vga16fb
blacklist nouveau
blacklist rivafb
blacklist nvidiafb
blacklist rivatv

Save the file and exit gedit.

I would like add a comment right now, in my Ubuntu installation the entry “blacklist amd76x_edac” allready existed. So check if any of the above entries allready exists at your blacklist.conf file.

In order to get rid of any nVidia residuals, run the following command in a terminal –

sudo apt-get remove --purge nvidia*

This may take a while, so be patient. Once it’s done, reboot your machine. At the login screen, don’t login just yet. Press Ctrl+Alt+F1 to switch to a text-based login. Login and switch to the directory which contains the downloaded drivers, toolkit and SDK. Run the following commands –

sudo service lightdm stop
chmod +x devdriver*.run

where devdriver*.run is the full name of your driver. Next, start the installation with –

sudo ./devdriver*.run

Follow the onscreen instructions. If the installer throws up an error about nouveau still running, allow it to create a blacklist for nouveau, quit the installation and reboot. In that case, run the following commands again –

sudo service lightdm stop
sudo ./devdriver*.run

The installation should now proceed smoothly. When it asks you if you want the 32-bit libraries and if you want it to edit xorg.conf to use these drivers by default, allow both.

Reboot once the installation completes.

STEP II – CUDA toolkit installation

Next, enter the following in a terminal window (in the directory where the files are stored) –

chmod +x cudatoolkit*.run
sudo ./cudatoolkit*.run

where cudatoolkit*.run is the full name of the toolkit installer. I recommend leaving the installation path to its default setting (/usr/local/cuda) unless you have a specific reason for not doing so.

STEP III – CUDA SDK installation

Once the toolkit is installed, enter the following in a terminal –

chmod +x gpucomputingsdk*.run
sudo ./gpucomputingsdk*.run

where gpucomputingsdk*.run is the full name of the SDK installer. Again, follow the instructions onscreen to complete the installation.

You’re now ready to journey into the world of CUDA and GPGPU computing. If you’re looking for books on the same, check out this page.

Root Sudo

Before, going on reading about sudo keep in mind, that for help with configuring sudo privileges via its configuration file /etc/sudoers, please see Sudoers.

Background Information

In Linux (and Unix in general), there is a SuperUser named Root. The Windows equivalent of Root is Administrators group. The SuperUser can do anything and everything, and thus doing daily work as the SuperUser can be dangerous. You could type a command incorrectly and destroy the system. Ideally, you run as a user that has only the privileges needed for the task at hand. In some cases, this is necessarily Root, but most of the time it is a regular user.

By default, the Root account password is locked in Ubuntu. This means that you cannot login as Root directly or use the su command to become the Root user. However, since the Root account physically exists it is still possible to run programs with root-level privileges. This is where sudo comes in – it allows authorized users (normally “Administrative” users; for further information please refer to AddUsersHowto) to run certain programs as Root without having to know the root password.

This means that in the terminal you should use sudo for commands that require root privileges; simply prepend sudo to all the commands you would normally run as Root. For more extensive usage examples, please see below. Similarly, when you run GUI programs that require root privileges (e.g. the network configuration applet), use graphical sudo and you will also be prompted for a password (more below). Just remember, when sudo asks for a password, it needs YOUR USER password, and not the Root account password.

Please keep in mind, a substantial number of Ubuntu users are new to Linux. There is a learning curve associated with any OS and many new users try to take shortcuts by enabling the root account, logging in as root, and changing ownership of system files.

Example: Broken system via (ab)use of root by a new user

Please note: At the time of the post, this was the users first post on the Ubuntu forums. While some may say this is a “learning experience”, learning by breaking your system is frustrating and can result in data loss.

When giving advice on the Ubuntu Forms and IRC, please take the time to teach “the basics” such as ownership, permissions, and how to use sudo / gksu / kdesudo in such a way that new users do not break systems.


Advantages and Disadvantages


Benefits of using sudo

Some benefits of leaving Root logins disabled by default include the following:

  • The Ubuntu installer has fewer questions to ask.
  • Users don’t have to remember an extra password (i.e. the root password), which they are likely to forget (or write down so anyone can crack into their account easily).
  • It avoids the “I can do anything” interactive login by default (e.g. the tendency by users to login as an “Administrator” user in Microsoft Windows systems), you will be prompted for a password before major changes can happen, which should make you think about the consequences of what you are doing.
  • sudo adds a log entry of the command(s) run (in /var/log/auth.log). If you mess up, you can always go back and see what commands were run. It is also nice for auditing.
  • Every cracker trying to brute-force their way into your box will know it has an account named Root and will try that first. What they don’t know is what the usernames of your other users are. Since the Root account password is locked, this attack becomes essentially meaningless, since there is no password to crack or guess in the first place.
  • Allows easy transfer for admin rights, in a short term or long term period, by adding and removing users from groups, while not compromising the Root account.
  • sudo can be setup with a much more fine-grained security policy.
  • The Root account password does not need to be shared with everybody who needs to perform some type of administrative task(s) on the system (see the previous bullet).
  • The authentication automatically expires after a short time (which can be set to as little as desired or 0); so if you walk away from the terminal after running commands as Root using sudo, you will not be leaving a Root terminal open indefinitely.


Downsides of using sudo

Although for desktops the benefits of using sudo are great, there are possible issues which need to be noted:

  • Redirecting the output of commands run with sudo requires a different approach. For instance consider sudo ls > /root/somefile will not work since it is the shell that tries to write to that file. You can use ls | sudo tee -a /root/somefile to append, or ls | sudo tee /root/somefile to overwrite contents. You could also pass the whole command to a shell process run under sudo to have the file written to with root permissions, such as sudo sh -c "ls > /root/somefile".
  • In a lot of office environments the ONLY local user on a system is Root. All other users are imported using NSS techniques such as nss-ldap. To setup a workstation, or fix it, in the case of a network failure where nss-ldap is broken, Root is required. This tends to leave the system unusable unless cracked. An extra local user, or an enabled Root password is needed here. The local user account should have its $HOME on a local disk, _not_ on NFS (or any other networked filesystem), and a .profile/.bashrc that doesn’t reference any files on NFS mounts. This is usually the case for Root, but if adding a non-Root rescue account, you will have to take these precautions manually.
    • Alternatively, a sysadmin type account can be implemented as a local user on all systems, and granted proper sudo privileges. As explained in the benefits section above, commands can be easily tracked and audited.







  • When using sudo, your password is stored by default for 15 minutes. After that time, you will need to enter your password again.
  • Your password will not be shown on the screen as you type it, not even as a row of stars (******). It is being entered with each keystroke!



To use sudo on the command line, preface the command with sudo, as below: Example #1

sudo chown bob:bob /home/bob/*

Example #2

sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

To repeat the last command entered, except with sudo prepended to it, run:

sudo !!



Graphical sudo

You should never use normal sudo to start graphical applications as Root. You should use gksudo (kdesudo on Kubuntu) to run such programs. gksudo sets HOME=~root, and copies .Xauthority to a tmp directory. This prevents files in your home directory becoming owned by Root. (AFAICT, this is all that’s special about the environment of the started process with gksudo vs. sudo).


gksudo gedit /etc/fstab


kdesudo kate /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • To run the graphical configuration utilities, simply launch the application via the Administration menu.
  • gksudo and kdesudo simply link to the commands gksu and kdesu


Drag & Drop sudo

This is a trick from this thread on the Ubuntu Forums.

Create a launcher with the following command:

gksudo "gnome-open %u"

When you drag and drop any file on this launcher (it’s useful to put it on the desktop or on a panel), it will be opened as Root with its own associated application. This is helpful especially when you’re editing config files owned by Root, since they will be opened as read only by default with gedit, etc.




Allowing other users to run sudo

To add a new user to sudo, open the Users and Groups tool from System->Administration menu. Then click on the user and then on properties. Choose the User Privileges tab. In the tab, find Administer the system and check that.

  • In Hardy Heron and newer, you must first Unlock, then you can select a user from the list and hit Properties. Choose the User Privileges tab and check Administer the system.


/!\" src= In the terminal this would be: sudo adduser <username> admin, where you replace <username> with the name of the user (without the <>).


Logging in as another user

Please don’t use this to become Root, see further down in the page for more information about that.

sudo -i -u <username>

For example to become the user amanda for tape management purposes.

sudo -i -u amanda

The password being asked for is your own, not amanda’s.


root account


Enabling the root account

IconsPage/IconWarning3.png Enabling the Root account is rarely necessary. Almost everything you need to do as administrator of an Ubuntu system can be done via sudo or gksudo. If you really need a persistent Root login, the best alternative is to simulate a Root login shell using the following command… IconsPage/IconWarning3.png


sudo -i


To enable the Root account (i.e. set a password) use:

sudo passwd root

Use at your own risk!


IconsPage/dont.png Logging in to X as root may cause very serious trouble. If you believe you need a root account to perform a certain action, please consult the official support channels first, to make sure there is not a better alternative. IconsPage/dont.png




Re-disabling your root account



IconsPage/info.png If for some reason you have enabled your root account and wish to disable it again, use the following command in terminal… IconsPage/info.png


sudo passwd -dl root





Other Information



  • Isn’t sudo less secure than su?
    • The basic security model is the same, and therefore these two systems share their primary weaknesses. Any user who uses su or sudo must be considered to be a privileged user. If that user’s account is compromised by an attacker, the attacker can also gain root privileges the next time the user does so. The user account is the weak link in this chain, and so must be protected with the same care as Root.

      On a more esoteric level, sudo provides some features which encourage different work habits, which can positively impact the security of the system. sudo is commonly used to execute only a single command, while su is generally used to open a shell and execute multiple commands. The sudo approach reduces the likelihood of a root shell being left open indefinitely, and encourages the user to minimize their use of root privileges.

  • I won’t be able to enter single-user mode!
    • The sulogin program in Ubuntu is patched to handle the default case of a locked root password.
  • I can get a root shell from the console without entering a password!
    • You have to enter your password.Console users have access to the boot loader, and can gain administrative privileges in various ways during the boot process. For example, by specifying an alternate init(8) program. Linux systems are not typically configured to be secure at the console, and additional steps (for example, setting a root password, a boot loader password and a BIOS password) are necessary in order to make them so. Note that console users usually have physical access to the machine and so can manipulate it in other ways as well.


Special notes on sudo and shells

None of the methods below are suggested or supported by the designers of Ubuntu.

Please do not suggest this to others unless you personally are available 24/7 to support the user if they have issues as a result of running a shell as Root.


To start a root shell (i.e. a command window where you can run Root commands), starting Root’s environment and login scripts, use:

sudo -i     (similar to sudo su - , gives you roots environment configuration)

To start a root shell, but keep the current shell’s environment, use:

sudo -s     (similar to sudo su)

For a brief overview of some of the differences between su, su -, and sudo -{i,s} see : Ubuntu Forums Post with nice table .

For a detailed description of the differences see man su and man sudo .


Remove Password Prompt For sudo

IconsPage/IconDialog-Warning1.png If you disable the sudo password for your account, you will seriously compromise the security of your computer. Anyone sitting at your unattended, logged in account will have complete Root access, and remote exploits become much easier for malicious crackers. IconsPage/IconDialog-Warning1.png
  • This method is NOT suggested nor supported by the designers of Ubuntu.
  • Please do not suggest this to others unless you personally are available 24/7 to support the user if they have issues as a result of running a shell as Root.

These instructions are to remove the prompt for a password when using the sudo command. The sudo command will still need to be used for Root access though.

Edit the sudoers file

Open a Terminal window. Type in sudo visudo. Add the following line to the END of the file (if not at the end it can be nullified by later entries):

<username> ALL=NOPASSWD: ALL

Replace <username> with your user name (without the <>). This is assuming that Ubuntu has created a group with the same name as your user name, which is typical. You can alternately use the group users or any other such group you are in. Just make sure you are in that group. This can be checked by going to System->Administration->Users and Groups



Type in ^x to exit. This should prompt for an option to save the file, type in Y to save.

Log out, log back in. This should now allow you to run the sudo command without being prompted for a password.


Reset sudo timeout

You can make sure sudo asks for password next time by running:

sudo -k

The default sudo timeout length can be changed by following this article: RootSudoTimeout.


How to Enable Root User in Ubuntu

This article, it’s going to be a first thing to do (in my opinion), after installing Ubuntu. By default in Ubuntu the Super User Root is disabled for security reasons. Thus, when you want to act like a SuperUser you have to call sudo actions instead of using a su at an administering session in Terminal. There are times that this security is useful, but there are times that this procedure is annoying. The point of view is very important to decide whether this has advantages or disadvantages. Read this article to see some of them.


By default, root account password is locked in Ubuntu. So, when you do su –, you’ll get Authentication failure error message as shown below.

$ su -
su: Authentication failure

Enable super user account password on Ubuntu

First, set a password for root user as shown below.

$ sudo passwd root
[sudo] password for giorgos:
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: password updated successfully

Now with the new password you can login as super user with su command

$ su -

Disable super user account password on Ubuntu

Later if you don’t want to use su anymore, you can lock the root user password using one of the methods shown below

$ sudo passwd -l root

( or )

$ sudo usermod -p '!' root